Federal government agrees on key points regarding cannabis: personal cultivation and pilot project

Federal government agrees on key points regarding cannabis: personal cultivation and pilot project

After discussions with the EU Commission, the Federal government has agreed on key points regarding cannabis. In the future, adult individuals should be able to cultivate cannabis in certain quantities for personal use or in non-profit associations. Additionally, as part of a regional pilot project, they should be able to purchase cannabis from licensed specialty stores. The aim of these measures is to control the quality, prevent the distribution of contaminated substances, and ensure the best possible protection for young people and consumers’ health and safety. At the same time, the black market should be curbed.

In a first step, cultivation in non-profit associations and personal cultivation should be allowed nationwide. In a second step, the distribution through specialty stores will be implemented as a scientifically designed, regionally limited, and time-limited pilot project. The pilot project offers the opportunity to scientifically investigate the effects of a commercial supply chain on health and youth protection as well as the black market.

Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. It is often offered and used illegally in Germany. This frequently endangers people’s health. Adolescents, in particular, are affected in their social and cognitive development by cannabis use. Despite this, an increasing number of adolescents consume the drug. Black market cannabis is often contaminated and poses additional health risks. We cannot tolerate this any longer. Therefore, we are taking the step to allow controlled distribution of cannabis to adults within clear boundaries and to push back the black market, accompanied by prevention measures for adolescents. The protection of health is the top priority in this regard. The current cannabis policy has failed. Now we need to explore new paths.

Prof. Karl Lauterbach

Federal Minister of Health

Federal press conference live stream on April 12, 2023 (starting at minute 9:33):

The previous restrictive approach to cannabis in Germany has failed. The prohibition of cannabis criminalizes countless people, drives them into criminal structures, and ties up immense resources in law enforcement agencies. It is time for a new approach that allows more individual responsibility, reduces the black market, and relieves police and prosecutors. We trust people more, without downplaying the risks that can arise from cannabis consumption.

Marco Buschmann

Federal Minister of Justice

The consumption of cannabis is a social reality. Decades of prohibition policies have closed their eyes to this reality and caused problems, especially for our children and adolescents, the health of consumers, and law enforcement agencies. Now we are creating a coherent and pragmatic cannabis policy that covers everything from cultivation to consumption. No one should have to buy from dealers anymore without knowing what they are getting into. Through controlled cultivation and distribution within cannabis clubs, we strengthen youth and health protection. And we are depriving organized crime of the ground, which doesn’t even shy away from selling to children. With a regional pilot project, we are also exploring the possibilities of a commercial supply chain.

Cem Özdemir

Federal Minister of Agriculture

The 2-pillar model, also known as “Club Cultivation & Regional Model/CARe,” was developed under the leadership of the Federal Ministry of Health. The professional responsibilities of the participating ministries – Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Ministry of Justice, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs, and Foreign Office – were taken into account. The key points of the model also consider the EU and international legal limits to ensure a legally compliant implementation.

Based on these key points, the Federal government will now present a draft law that will be presented soon.

The 2-pillar model in detail:

1. Pillar: Private & communal, non-profit personal cultivation.

  • Non-profit associations are allowed to cultivate cannabis for recreational purposes under strict and clearly defined legal framework and distribute it to members for personal consumption. The members should actively participate in the association as much as possible. Participation of association members in cultivation is allowed, but outsourcing cultivation to third parties is prohibited.
  • The conditions for cultivation and distribution will be regulated in a separate law.
  • In addition to the harvested recreational cannabis, the association may also distribute seeds and cuttings produced by the association to its members for personal cultivation. It is being examined whether and how seeds and/or cuttings for personal cultivation can be obtained through the associations at cost without requiring membership in an association.
  • Approval and supervision will be carried out by state authorities, among others, regarding compliance with quantity, quality, and youth protection requirements, through on-site visits and random checks. Personal data collected by the associations in connection with the distribution of recreational cannabis, seeds, and cuttings to members may not be disclosed to unauthorized third parties or used for other purposes. Membership in multiple associations is prohibited.
  • Fines, revocation of approval, or imprisonment may be imposed for repeated violations.
  • Cultivation and harvest quantities are oriented towards meeting demand. There are reporting and documentation obligations regarding the quantities produced and distributed. There is a ban on the import or export of recreational cannabis.
  • Membership fees cover the costs, which are staggered according to the quantity distributed (possibly with a basic flat rate and an additional amount per gram distributed).
  • The maximum number of members per association is limited to 500, with a minimum age of 18 years and residency or habitual residence in Germany. The number of associations can be limited based on population density.
  • Associations can only be led by natural persons whose reliability has been verified. The association is managed according to the principles of association law. Personal liability of the association’s board members for financial damages or the violation of official regulations should only occur in cases of intent or gross negligence.
  • The procurement of seeds for the initial cultivation in the associations is allowed. The possibility of importing seeds from third countries is being evaluated.
  • The distribution of the harvested cannabis (flowers) is only allowed to members; no distribution to third parties; a maximum 25g of cannabis per day, maximum. 50g per month, maximum. 7 seeds or 5 cuttings per month. The distribution to adolescents under the age of 21 is limited to a quantity of 30g per month, with an additional limitation on the permissible THC content (limit to be determined). This should be reflected in the selection of varieties.
  • It is being examined whether and how seeds and cuttings can be exchanged free of charge between associations to ensure quality.
  • For communal personal cultivation, quality requirements apply (in particular, the prohibition of additives or adulterations such as tobacco or flavors, requirements for plant protection products, no synthetic cannabinoids).
  • The dispensing is only done in pure form (flowers or resin) in neutral packaging or loose with attached information about the product (strain, including their usual average THC content and content of other cannabinoids such as CBD), dosage and application as well as risks of consumption and counseling centers.
  • Consumption in the premises of the association is prohibited as well as public consumption near schools, kindergartens or similar institutions, as well as in pedestrian zones until 8pm.
  • The issuance of alcohol, tobacco, or other pleasure and intoxicating substances is also prohibited.
  • Access is only allowed for adults with a strict obligation to verify their age.
  • There are regulations regarding youth protection and prevention: Youth protection, addiction, and prevention officers appointed by the association have demonstrated expertise; there is a mandatory cooperation with the local addiction prevention or counseling center and a minimum distance to schools, kindergartens, etc.
  • The associations and cannabis products are subject to a general advertising ban. Permissible are factual information.
  • Minimum security measures (e.g. burglar-proof premises, fencing) prevent unauthorized access by third parties.
  • Legal possession (carrying in public) is possible for personal use up to 25g; criminal provisions apply for possession exceeding this amount, for trade and distribution to non-members, as well as for distribution to children and adolescents, and for the distribution of cannabis not grown in the associations themselves.
  • The limits for driving under the influence of cannabis in road, maritime, and air transport will be reviewed with the involvement of relevant experts. Regulations regarding the admissibility of driving under the influence of cannabis are based solely on the requirements of traffic safety.
  • The decriminalized private cultivation for personal use includes a maximum of… 3 female flowering plants and must be protected from access by children and adolescents.
  • It will be possible to have convictions registered exclusively for acts related to cannabis, for which the law no longer provides for punishment in the future (possession up to 25g/cultivation of up to 3 female flowering plants), deleted from the Federal Central Register upon request. The entry into force of the law will terminate ongoing investigations and criminal proceedings for these acts through the means already provided for in the German Code of Criminal Procedure (StPO).
  • The scope of the Federal Nonsmoker Protection Act is extended to include the smoking of products in connection with cannabis; additional nonsmoker protection in accordance with the regulations for tobacco must be ensured.
  • Participation in early intervention and prevention programs for minors who possess or consume cannabis is mandatory.
  • After 4 years, the guidelines for pillar 1 will be evaluated with the aim of examining possible adjustments regarding health and youth protection as well as curbing the black market.

Additionally, the measures for youth and health protection formulated in the policy paper of October 26, 2022 are to be implemented. The intention is to design this regulatory project in such a way that no notification obligation is triggered.

2nd Pillar: Regional pilot project with commercial supply chains

The second pillar builds on the approaches outlined in the paper “key points” of October 26, 2022, including an evaluation, to implement a scientifically designed, regionally and temporarily limited model on the way to a nationwide regulation: companies are allowed to produce, distribute, and sell recreational cannabis in licensed and state-controlled specialty stores to adults. With this pillar, the effects of a commercial supply chain on health and youth protection as well as the black market can be scientifically investigated.

  • The project duration is 5 years from the establishment of the supply chain.
  • The distribution is limited to certain districts/cities in several federal states, and to adult residents at designated points of sale (opt-in approach).
  • As part of the law, the authorization of the distribution of edibles while ensuring strict youth and health protection measures will be examined.
  • This model will be scientifically accompanied and evaluated. The findings will be made available to European partners and the EU Commission.
  • The health and youth protection also follow the key points paper of October 26th, 2022.

The implementation of the 2-pillar model takes place within the framework of international and EU legal provisions. The federal government will notify the United Nations bodies about the project and provide a statement to explain the compatibility of the model with the legal requirements of the UN conventions. A close and transparent coordination with European partners is important.

The participating federal ministries work in a coordinated manner with the overall leadership of the Federal Ministry of Health on both pillars of the model. Concrete draft laws will be developed, with the working draft for pillar 1 to be presented in April 2023, followed by the draft law for pillar 2. The results of the already commissioned scientific study on the effects of the legalization of recreational cannabis on health and youth protection in other states will be taken into account for both pillars.

At the same time, the federal government continues its efforts to promote its approaches among European partners and to examine whether an initiative of a sufficient number of EU member states is possible to flexibilize and further develop the relevant EU legal framework in the medium term. The government emphasizes, however, that this part of the project is likely to remain subject to notification requirements.

The government does not currently plan to adjust THC limits for driving despite legalization

The government does not currently plan to adjust THC limits for driving despite legalization

Due to very low THC limits for drivers, coalition politicians have demanded to raise them in the context of planned cannabis legalization. However, currently the government has no plans to change the limits. Instead, a scientific evaluation is to be conducted first, for which no specific timeframe has been established yet.

Contrary to the demand from the coalition factions, the government’s legislative plans for cannabis legalization do not initially provide for raising THC limits for road traffic. According to a draft proposal obtained by the RedaktionsNetzwerk Deutschland (RND), the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure is to scientifically evaluate the effects of controlled distribution of cannabis to adults for non-medical purposes on the current limits for road traffic.

The legislative rationale points out that according to the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Court, the permissible limits do not allow any statements about the driving ability of the affected individual in the specific case. Rather, the abstract possibility of impairment of driving ability is already sufficient.

No short-term change planned for THC limits in road traffic.

In Germany, drivers who have consumed cannabis must expect to lose their driver’s license. This can also happen even if the last consumption was several days ago. The reason for this is the extremely low permissible THC levels in the blood serum, which are currently only 1.0 nanograms per milliliter.

Politicians from various parties had spoken out in favor of raising the THC limits in the context of planned legalization. However, such an adjustment is currently not planned. The legislative proposal only provides for a scientific evaluation without a specific date for any possible adjustment being mentioned. As a result, it could take years before the values are actually raised.

Possible relief for the state of over one billion euros per year through the legalization of cannabis

Possible relief for the state of over one billion euros per year through the legalization of cannabis

New calculations show that even with a scaled-down implementation of the plans to legalize cannabis, the public sector could still experience significant relief. In addition, revenues in the millions are expected.

The planned legalization of cannabis proposed by Federal Health Minister Karl Lauterbach (SPD) will be significantly less extensive than originally planned. There will be no commercial cultivation and no sale of joints in specialized stores allowed. Nevertheless, the state treasury will benefit from the plans.

According to an updated study by Düsseldorf economist Justus Haucap for Handelsblatt, the public sector will see savings and additional revenues totaling 1.1 billion euros. This is a significant reduction compared to the original estimates, which had predicted savings of 4.7 billion euros with full legalization.

The planned legalization of cannabis envisages that possession of cannabis will no longer be punishable in Germany. The traffic light parties SPD, Greens and FDP want to allow the possession of up to 25 grams of cannabis and legalize the cultivation of a maximum of three plants for personal use. Furthermore, cultivation and distribution of the drug should be made possible in special associations. However, the free sale of cannabis for adults in specialized stores will only be tested in a second step and initially in model regions with scientific support.

For the federal government, the financial effects are not the main focus of the planned legalization of cannabis. Rather, the goal is to combat the black market and drug-related crime and to strengthen child and youth protection. Nevertheless, the savings are likely to be very welcome due to the strained financial situation of the public sector.

Expert predicts a demand of 400 tons per year after legalization of cannabis.

According to expert Justus Haucap, the legalization of cannabis in Germany could lead to relief for the public sector. The largest savings of 1.05 billion euros would result from decriminalization and a reduction in the need for police and judicial resources.

In addition, revenues of 28 million euros from income tax and 52 million euros from social security contributions could be generated through the employment of personnel in cannabis clubs. These assumptions are based on initial estimates of how the first step of legalization could be implemented, without taking into account model regions.

Haucap estimates the total annual demand for cannabis at 400 tons, of which 120 tons could be covered through clubs. The number of clubs that will exist is still unclear, but Haucap assumes there will be about 1000 distribution points in Germany, each of which could employ two to three staff members.

Although the legalization of cannabis in Germany could lead to significant savings, there are also significant losses due to the scaled-down plans. A possible cannabis tax alone could have generated revenues of up to 1.8 billion euros per year. In addition, the state could have expected additional revenues of over one billion euros through sales, business, corporation, and income taxes.

The original study by Justus Haucap also anticipated that the legalization of cannabis in Germany would create up to 26,000 new jobs.

Justus Haucap, an expert in the field of economics, expressed his concern to Handelsblatt that the scaled-down plans for the legalization of cannabis in Germany are wasting a lot of potential. He emphasized that this not only concerns tax revenues.

Haucap argued that the limited legalization would make it significantly more difficult to eradicate the black market. A part of the market will thus be left to organized crime, which could have a negative impact on youth and health protection. A truly legalized market with licensing for all value creation stages would achieve better results in this regard.

In addition, the value chains would be much less extensive than with full legalization.

Haucap warns of possible failure of cannabis legalization

Justus Haucap warns that the plans to legalize cannabis in Germany could fail if the establishment of cannabis clubs, cultivation of hemp plants, and processing and sale in the clubs are overwhelmed with excessive bureaucracy. Haucap is calling for a regulatory framework that is as liberal and uncomplicated as possible.

However, a study by the Institute for Interdisciplinary Addiction and Drug Research in Hamburg, commissioned by Health Minister Karl Lauterbach, advocates limiting the commercial market in the interest of health and youth protection. The study refers to experiences in Canada, Uruguay, or some US states, where cannabis has already been legalized. It is expected that consumption will continue to increase in Germany after a possible legalization. According to the authors of the study, health protection for adults is likely to change only slightly in the short term. The study was sent by Lauterbach on Tuesday to the government factions in the Bundestag and the other ministries.

Debate about the approval of THC-containing cannabis edibles remains controversial

The debate about the approval of THC-containing cannabis edibles remains controversial. A study by the Institute for Interdisciplinary Addiction and Drug Research in Hamburg, commissioned by the Ministry of Health, points to the dangers of edibles, especially for children under the age of ten. The number of unintentional poisonings and intoxications in this age group has increased in countries where edibles were legally sold.

The study does not advocate for a general ban, but it calls for legal cannabis products to be designed in a way that is not attractive to this target group. However, the Ministry of Health emphasizes that a ban is essential for the protection of children and adolescents.

In the traffic light coalition, unlike urged by the Ministry of Health, there is a push for the approval of edibles. FDP health policy maker Kristine Lütke argues that this form of cannabis consumption is less harmful to health and therefore must be allowed, otherwise dealers will specialize in it and the goal of pushing back the black market will be missed. However, experts point out that the legal market must be regulated in a way that keeps the increase in consumption at a low level.

How do I proceed legally to establish a “Cannabis Club” and what requirements must I fulfill?

How do I proceed legally to establish a “Cannabis Club” and what requirements must I fulfill?

A broad legalization of recreational cannabis is not currently planned, as recently announced by Karl Lauterbach and Cem Özdemir. Instead, two pillars are planned: Firstly, so-called Cannabis Clubs are intended to regulate cultivation and distribution, as well as allowing for personal cultivation. Secondly, commercial supply chains are only provided for in regional model projects. In light of these developments, we have received several questions about whether it is now possible to simply establish a Cannabis Club.

What will the legalization of cannabis look like in the future?

The key points for a possible legalization of recreational cannabis have now been presented. However, it is currently difficult to implement this plan, as the legal situation regarding cannabis has not yet changed. The presented key points also do not represent a concrete draft law and all statements are subject to reservation. However, it is expected to become more concrete in the near future. Already in April 2023, a draft for the first pillar, which mainly concerns Cannabis Clubs and personal cultivation, will be presented. However, neither will lead to a commercial trade. Only in the model regions of the second pillar, which will take a bit longer, the situation will be different.

Is it possible to go from personal cultivation to becoming a small business owner?

The actual question, however, is whether it is possible to develop from personal cultivation to becoming a small business owner. Unfortunately, the first option is immediately ruled out. If you think of the typical small-scale production of cannabis plants and would like to sell their yields when you hear the term ‘personal cultivation’, you will quickly be halted. As stated in the key points paper, criminal provisions are to apply in the future for the sale of cannabis not grown in Cannabis Clubs themselves. Therefore, personal cultivation is solely for personal use and does not serve as a springboard for a career as a cannabis dealer.

Another option is to establish Cannabis Clubs for the communal cultivation of recreational cannabis.

With Cannabis Clubs, it’s different: The question of whether ‘the average person’ can establish such a club can be answered with yes. These associations, which are allowed to legally cultivate and distribute recreational cannabis, must be led by natural persons, meaning by individuals and not by legal entities such as corporations or the like, as stated in the key points paper. It is clear that the person who leads the club must be at least 18 years old. The key points also provide for their reliability to be checked, but what exactly is required for this is not yet known.

What are the requirements for Cannabis Clubs?

The operation of a Cannabis Club will not be profitable, as the associations are not allowed to operate for profit and cannabis may only be distributed to members to cover personal needs. There will also be restrictions, such as not allowing third parties to be entrusted with the cultivation. However, the key points provide for various requirements for the management of a Cannabis Club, including quality requirements for pesticides, information and reporting obligations, restrictions on the simultaneous sale of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, as well as obligations for age verification and youth protection. In addition, there will be a general advertising ban and regulations for handling personal data. The import and export of recreational cannabis will not be allowed, but the import of seeds or cuttings for initial cultivation is being considered by lawmakers.

Violations of the requirements and conditions imposed on the operation of Cannabis Clubs can lead to severe sanctions In addition to fines, the revocation of the permit and monetary or even imprisonment penalties can be imposed for repeated violations. The clubs are to be managed according to the basic principles of association law, with personal liability of the executive board only to occur in cases of intent or gross negligence. Consumption of cannabis within the associations themselves is not to be allowed.

The third option for implementing cannabis legalization involves the introduction of regional pilot projects and commercial supply chains.

A real commercial distribution will likely only be possible as part of the measures of the second pillar, which provides for regional pilot projects with commercial supply chains. The goal is to conduct scientific research, in particular on the effects on the black market. However, the information is still very limited. A draft law could be available after the summer break. While some voices speculate that the legal framework for the first pillar could already come into effect in the summer of 2023, it will likely take longer for the second pillar as this measure will probably need to be notified to the EU.

The establishment of a Cannabis Club will not necessarily be straightforward. Most likely, no. There are many requirements for the establishment and operation of such associations that must be taken into account, even if they have only been outlined so far. Capital is also needed, both for cultivation itself and for the ‘bureaucratic’ apparatus that will undoubtedly be necessary to operate a club. However, you don’t have to be a financially strong company to start a Cannabis Club – and you’re not allowed to be.

Bavaria will not allow cannabis model projects

Bavaria will not allow cannabis model projects

Markus Söder expressed his concerns on Tuesday regarding the planned legalization of cannabis, fearing that it would lead to a complete mental standstill. Klaus Holetschek went even further and expressed himself unambiguously.

Bavaria’s Minister of Health, Klaus Holetschek, shares the concerns about the legalization of cannabis. He described the planned law as a big mistake and sees youth protection at risk. Bavaria rejects the planned model projects by Federal Minister of Health Karl Lauterbach (SPD) and is doing everything to prevent them. Holetschek argues that model regions are incompatible with European and international law and can only be meaningful if they are used for scientific or medical purposes.

The Minister of Health is particularly concerned about the fact that cannabis is also intended to be made available to young people between the ages of 18 and 21. Since the brain is not fully developed until the age of 25, there is an increased risk of mental illnesses such as psychoses.

The legalization of cannabis in Germany is planned through a two-pillar model. The first pillar is intended to provide a quick way to legally obtain cannabis. For this purpose, Cannabis Social Clubs with a maximum of 500 members are to be established, which may grow cannabis for personal use. Each member can purchase up to 50 grams per month, except for those under 21 years old, whose monthly limit is 30 grams. Posession of up to 25 grams is allowed and can also be carried in public. For personal cultivation, up to seven seeds or five cuttings per person are allowed, but only three female plants per person may be grown. Nothing will change for those under 18 years old.

Consumption of cannabis in public is prohibited near schools or kindergartens. No smoking is allowed in pedestrian areas until 8 p.m. Minors caught with cannabis must participate in intervention and prevention programs. The second pillar is intended to conduct model projects to gain experience and further improve youth protection.

The implementation of the second pillar of the two-pillar model for cannabis legalization is scheduled to begin in the summer of this year. In a regional model project, commercial supply chains will be established and cultivation will be made even safer. The model experiments will be accompanied by scientific research and will run for a period of five years. Interim evaluations are planned to review the results and make adjustments if necessary.

This year, the cultivation of cannabis is set to be legalized

This year, the cultivation of cannabis is set to be legalized

On Wednesday, Federal Health Minister Karl Lauterbach (SPD) and Agriculture Minister Cem Özdemir (Greens) presented the key points of a corresponding draft law in Berlin. According to the presented draft law, the private consumption and cultivation of cannabis will be allowed in Germany later this year.

According to the revised plan for cannabis legalization, possession of up to 25 grams and the cultivation of three plants for personal use would be decriminalized in the future. However, as explained by Federal Health Minister Lauterbach and Agriculture Minister Özdemir, the free sale of the drug will initially be postponed. Instead, special clubs should initially be allowed to provide limited amounts of cannabis products to their members. ARD capital correspondent Dietrich Karl Mäurer has explained further details about the government’s plans on NDR Info.

Mäurer explains that the project is planned to be implemented in two stages. In the first stage, the quick elimination of prohibitions and law enforcement as well as the drying up of the black market is intended to be achieved. Controlled dispensing should be done through “non-profit associations” that grow cannabis products for recreational purposes and may provide them to a maximum of 500 members for their own consumption. The amounts of cannabis to be distributed by these “non-profit associations” should be limited to 25 grams per person per day and a maximum of 50 grams per month. It should also be allowed to grow cannabis for personal use. According to the draft law, the possession of up to 25 grams of cannabis and the cultivation of up to three female plants per person shall be allowed and not punished.

Could one say that the draft law represents a gradual approach towards full cannabis legalization?

Mäurer: Yes, that’s a good summary. The government is taking a cautious and coordinated approach here to minimize possible risks and impacts while at the same time reaping the benefits of legalization. The government plans to take a gradual approach towards full legalization, which will be supported by model experiments and observations.


How certain is it that the new German plans are compatible with EU law?

Mäurer says that the state-controlled model experiments are likely to be compatible with EU law. Lauterbach had talks with the EU Commission on this topic, which remained confidential, but he was able to say that he took the new key points from it. There doesn’t seem to be an issue with the recent discussions that have taken place in the past weeks and months regarding the obligation of Schengen area countries to prevent the illegal export and trafficking of drugs, including cannabis. So, this pilot project seems to have found a feasible way.

How will this be implemented in practice? How will adults over 18 years of age be able to obtain cannabis in the future? Should this happen in these clubs where you have to become a member?

Mäurer: Agriculture Minister Özdemir announced that legal cannabis consumption will probably be possible later this year. To do so, one must become a member of a non-profit cannabis club, where they can then purchase and consume cannabis for private use up to the allowed maximum amount. Alternatively, one can also purchase cannabis seeds or cuttings and grow them at home. It is extremely important, however, to ensure that children and adolescents do not have access to cannabis.

If someone does not want to become a member of this club, they can still get cannabis on the black market.

Mäurer: That’s true, but then the buyer still doesn’t know – as it is now – exactly what he is buying. The problem is that cannabis sold on the black market is often cut with even more toxic substances. Mäurer: Agriculture Minister Özdemir is confident that the new law will have an impact here: The black market will be “blackly annoyed,” as the Green politician puts it. The government’s goal is to ensure the controlled distribution of cannabis to adults while maximizing the protection of children and adolescents. The traffic light coalition does not expect to completely eliminate the black market, but that it can be significantly restricted. The cannabis clubs are not supposed to operate for profit, but to offer the cannabis to their members at cost price. In contrast, a dealer, of course, has an interest in making a profit from the sale of drugs. The price could possibly help regulate that.

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